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During the 19th century  and in contemporary times, Portuguese prostitutes have operated in Macau. Some Chinese triad members from Macau married Portuguese prostitutes before China took it back from Portugal, providing them with access to Portuguese citizenship. By there were about White Russian prostitutes in Shanghai. Today, many European prostitutes in China market themselves as escorts to attract the attention of visiting businessmen and richer Chinese clients.
They may work independently or through an escort agency and advertise their services through the internet. In Shanghai many Russian women work as prostitutes. In Harbin there are Russian prostitutes and African students patronize them. China is a recipient of Vietnamese prostitutes. They provide sex mainly to Chinese men. Vietnamese women working as prostitutes in China have been trafficked from Vietnam through various means at the Guangxi border.
On the Chinese border with Vietnam, in the Chinese town of Po-chai, a "Vietnamese girl market" made out of Vietnamese prostitutes offers sex to Chinese men exclusively and refuses service to Vietnamese men. Every year, thousands of women from Kenya, Rwanda or Uganda are ending up in the brothels of China, Indonesia and Malaysia.
Hong Kong and Macau are special administrative regions of China and subject to different laws: This has led to a higher incidence of prostitution in these regions than in mainland China. Women travel from mainland China to Hong Kong and Macau in order to engage in the trade. There are also allegations of women being trafficked for the purpose.
Elizabeth Wheeler Andrew — and Katharine Caroline Bushnell 5 February January 26, , who wrote extensively on the position of women in the British Empire, wrote about the Tanka inhabitants of Hong Kong and their position in the prostitution industry, catering towards foreign sailors. The Tanka did not marry with the Chinese, being descendants of the natives, they were restricted to the waterways.
They supplied their women as prostitutes to British sailors and assisted the British in their military actions around Hong Kong  The Tanka in Hong Kong were considered "outcasts" categorized low class.
Ordinary Chinese prostitutes were afraid of serving Westerners since they looked strange to them, while the Tanka prostitutes freely mingled with western men. The Tanka prostitutes were considered to be "low class", greedy for money, arrogant, and treating clients with a bad attitude, they were known for punching their clients or mocking them by calling them names. The stereotype among most Chinese in Canton that all Tanka women were prostitutes was common, leading the government during the Republican era to accidentally inflate the number of prostitutes when counting, due to all Tanka women being included.
Tanka women were ostracized from the Cantonese community, and were nicknamed "salt water girls " ham shui mui in Cantonese for their services as prostitutes to foreigners in Hong Kong. Tanka women who worked as prostitutes for foreigners also commonly kept a "nursery" Tanka girls specifically for exporting them for prostitution work to overseas Chinese communities such as in Australia or America, or to serve as a Chinese or foreigner's concubine.
A report called "Correspondence respecting the alleged existence of Chinese slavery in Hong Kong: The Manchu traveller Qi-yi-shi reported the presence of prostitution among Torghut and Khoshut women in the Karasahr area of Xinjiang in In late 19th and early 20th century Turpan , Islamic modesty meant that Muslim prostitutes would not bare their bodies to clients in the way that Chinese prostitutes did.
The only women in Xinjiang at that time not to wear headscarfs were prostitutes from the poorest social classes. Hunter noted that the poverty of the Turki Muslims Uyghurs resulted in them selling their daughters, and that the practice led to Xinjiang containing significant numbers of Turki prostitutes.
Temporary marriage , in the form of the Sunni Muslim misyar marriage "traveller's marriage" contract, is a practice that has sometimes been used as a cover for a form of prostitution. It allowed a man to marry a woman for a week or even a couple of days, with "the mulla who performs the ceremony arranging for the divorce at the same time". Such a marriage was forbidden by the Koran, and the Turki Uyghur Muslims in Xinjiang called it a " marriage of convenience ".
After the restoration of Chinese rule in the late 19th century it was common for Chinese soldiers and civilians in the Yarkand area of Xinjiang, including high officials, to take temporary wives, often without a marriage ceremony. Most of the wives came from Khotan.
When the Chinese returned to China proper, their wives were abandoned or sold to friends. The frequent marriages of Chinese men to Muslim Turki women in Xinjiang from occurred despite the fact that Islamic law forbids Muslim women from marrying non-Muslims, and that the Turki community considered such women to be prostitutes. Some foreign commentators suggested that the women involved were motivated by poverty, as such marriages prevented the women from being subject to the tax on prostitution.
Chinese police categorise prostitution practices according to a descending hierarchy of seven tiers, though this typology does not exhaust the forms of practices that exist. While they are all classified as prostitutes, the services they offer can be very different.
Within some tiers, for example, there is still some revulsion to the acts of anal sex and oral sex. In parallel with the wide range of backgrounds for prostitutes, male buyers of sex also come from a wide range of occupational backgrounds.
According to the local police, in China there are seven categories of prostitutes: The first and second tiers have become the focus of heated public debate because they are explicitly linked to government corruption. In theory, the "three accompaniments" are chatting, drinking and dancing with their clients.
In practice, the "three accompaniments" more often refers to dancing with, drinking with, and being publicly groped by their clients. These women often begin by allowing their clients to fondle or intimately caress their bodies, then if the client is eager, will engage in sexual intercourse. The lowest two tiers are characterised by a more straightforward exchange of sex for financial or material recompense. They are neither explicitly linked to government corruption, nor directly mediated through China's new commercial recreational business sector.
Women who sell sex in the lowest two tiers usually do so in return for small sums of money, food and shelter. The PRC rejects the argument that prostitution is an unremarkable transaction between consenting individuals and that prohibition laws constitute a violation of civil liberties. Overall, the PRC's legal response to prostitution is to penalise third party organisers of prostitution.
Participants in the prostitution transaction are still usually penalised according to the Chinese system of administrative sanctions , rather than through the criminal code. Until the s, the subject of prostitution was not viewed as a major concern for the National People's Congress.
The PRC's first criminal code, the Criminal Law and the Criminal Procedure Law of made no explicit reference to the activities of prostitutes and prostitute clients. Prostitution only became a distinct object of statutory classification in the early s. Responding to requests from the Ministry of Public Security and the All-China Women's Federation , the National People's Congress passed legislation that significantly expanded the range and scope of prostitution controls: The PRC's revised Criminal Law of retains its abolitionist focus in that it is primarily concerned with criminalising third-party involvement in prostitution.
For the first time the death penalty may be used, but only in exceptional cases of organising prostitution activities, involving additional circumstances such as repeated offences, rape, causing serious bodily injury , etc. The criminal code codified provisions in the Decision, establishing a system of controls over social place, specifically places of leisure and entertainment.
Government intervention in commercial recreation has found concrete expression in the form of the "Regulations concerning the management of public places of entertainment".
The provisions proscribe a range of commercial practices that characterise the activities of female "hostesses". As a result of strong calls to curb official corruption, during the mid to late s, a whole host of regulations were also introduced to ban government employees both from running recreational venues and from protecting illegal business operations. Following the introduction of these measures, the Chinese media has publicised numerous cases of government officials being convicted and disciplined for abusing their positions for prostitution.
Despite the position of the law, prostitutes are often treated as quasi-criminals by the Ministry of Public Security. Chinese police conduct regular patrols of public spaces , often with the support of mass-line organisations, using a strong presence as a deterrence against prostitution. Because lower tier prostitutes work the streets, they are more likely to be apprehended. Arrests are also more likely to be female sellers of sex than male buyers of sex.
The overwhelming majority of men and women who are apprehended are released with a caution and fine. In response, sellers and buyers of sex have adopted a wide range of tactics designed to avoid apprehension. The spatial mobility which is afforded by modern communications systems, such as mobile phones and pagers , and by modern forms of transportation, such as taxis and private cars , has severely reduced the ability of police to determine exactly who is engaged in acts of solicitation.
In tandem with the long-term task of developing preventative policing, the much more visible form of policing have been periodic police-led campaigns. Anti-prostitution campaigns have been accompanied by nationwide "media blitzes" to publicise the PRC's laws and regulations.
This is typically followed by the announcement of arrest statistics, and then by sober official statements suggesting that the struggle to eliminate prostitution will be a long one.
The use of campaigns has been criticised for their reliance on an outdated "ideological" construction and an equally outmoded campaign formula of the s. The primary target of the PRC's prostitution controls throughout the s has been China's burgeoning hospitality and entertainment industry.
These culminated in the "strike hard" campaigns of late and Whilst such campaigns may have failed to eradicate prostitution in toto , there is some evidence that regulation of China's recreational venues has helped to create a legitimate female service worker with the right to refuse to engage in practices repugnant to the "valid labour contract", as well as the right to be free from sexual harassment in the workplace. Chinese police have, however, proven unable to effectively police higher tier prostitution practices.
The nature of concubinage and second wife practices makes it more suited as a target of social action campaigns rather than conventional police action. Because of social changes, for example, Chinese police are now professionally constrained not to intrude on people's personal relationships in an overt or coercive manner.
In some areas, "massage parlours" on main streets are known full well to be brothels, but are generally left to function without hindrance, barring occasional raids.
The illegal activities and problems associated with prostitution had led some to believe that there would be benefits if prostitution was legalized.
A number of international NGOs and human rights organisations have criticised the PRC government for failing to comply with the UN Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women , accusing PRC of penalising and abusing lower tier prostitutes, many of whom are victims of human trafficking, while exonerating men who buy sex, and ignoring the ongoing problems of governmental complicity and involvement in the sex trade industry.
States Parties shall take all appropriate measures, including legislation, to suppress all forms of traffic in women and exploitation of prostitution of women. However, it does not advocate a system of legal and regulated prostitution. Central guidelines laid down by the CPC do not permit the public advocacy of the legalisation of prostitution.
Arguments concerning legalisation are not absent, however, from mainland China. On the contrary, some commentators contend that legally recognising the sex industry, in conjunction with further economic development, will ultimately reduce the number of women in prostitution. While prostitution controls have been relaxed at a local level, [ citation needed ] there is no impetus for legalisation at the central government level. Importantly, legalisation does not have much public support.
These include the lack of independent trade unions , and limited access of individuals to civil redress with regard to occupational health and safety issues. The spread of prostitution practices has introduced a large quantity of slang to the popular vocabulary. Prostitution is a popular subject in the media, especially on the internet.
Typically news of police raids, court cases or family tragedies related to prostitution are published in a sensationalised form. A good example is news of an orgy between Japanese clients and Chinese prostitutes in , which partially because of anti-Japanese sentiment , was widely publicised and met with considerable outrage. Prostitution has emerged as a subject of art in recent years, particularly in Chinese cinema. Li Shaohong 's film Blush begins in with the rounding up of prostitutes in Shanghai for " reeducation ", and proceeds to tell the story of a love triangle between two prostitutes and one of their former clients.
One of the prostitutes, Xiaoe, attempts to hang herself in reeducation. When asked to explain the reason, she says she was born in the brothel and enjoyed her lifestyle there - thereby challenging the government-sanctioned perspective of prostitution. The film Xiu Xiu: The Sent Down Girl was a dramatic portrayal of "invisible" prostitution in the rural China during the Maoist era. The independent film Seafood , by Zhu Wen , was an even more frank depiction of prostitution, this time of the complicated relationship between prostitution and law enforcement.
In the film, a Beijing prostitute goes to a seaside resort to commit suicide. Her attempt is intervened by a police officer who tries to redeem her, but also inflicts upon her many instances of sexual assault. Both films, whilst being critically acclaimed abroad, performed poorly in mainland China, only partially due to government restrictions on distribution. The depiction of prostitution in fiction, by comparison, has fared slightly better. The most notable author on the subject is the young writer Jiu Dan , whose portrayal of Chinese prostitutes in Singapore in her novel Wuya , was extremely controversial.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Decriminalization - No criminal penalties for prostitution. Legalization -prostitution legal and regulated. Abolitionism - prostitution is legal, but organized activities such as brothels and pimping are illegal; prostitution is not regulated. Neo-abolitionism illegal to buy sex and for 3rd party involvement, legal to sell sex.
Prohibitionism - prostitution illegal. Legality varies with local laws. This section does not cite any sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. August Learn how and when to remove this template message.
Monsters and Critics , 12 April Retrieved 19 April China includes Tibet, Hong Kong, and Macau ". United States Department of State. Retrieved 8 May Discrimination, Societal Abuse, and Trafficking in Persons. Retrieved 20 November Archived from the original Archived 14 May at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 24 November [ unreliable source? Retrieved on 22 November People's Daily , 22 November Prostitution and Modernity in Twentieth-Century Shanghai.
University of California Press. Social, Ethical and Legal Issues. Academy of Social Sciences. China, Sex and Prostitution. Retrieved 30 November Archived from the original Archived 21 April at the Wayback Machine. Prostitution Scandals in China: Policing, Media and Society. Retrieved 24 November Archived from the original Archived 13 September at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 15 December Retrieved 2 December International Criminal Justice Review 4 China and Hong Kong: Coalition Against Trafficking in Women.
Child Workers in Asia 13 2—3 , Retrieved 3 December This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain. Archived from the original on November 11, Korean women forced into sex slavery" by Carol Anne Douglas. Archived from the original on 11 February Lobby looks more then from Sodom and Gomorra then from a 3 star hotel after Brekfast is a killer.
At least lukewarm now a days compared with few years back. However it is painful to eat. Close your eyes and chew. Business center and fitness center is a joke. OK, some staff really tries, friendly, helpful, reception though haven't a clue on service and for most parts not in english.
Smelly AC and ventilation. For most parts fresh bedlinen but check for bedbugs. One time room infested with the little buggers. Managment not to happy to give even a small refund- how can you beet that in a 3 star hotel? York is located ideally as the new metro station is right outside will be up and running soon..
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Review tags are currently only available for English language reviews. Reviewed May 9, Best of the best. June , traveled on business. Reviewed May 4, Not suitble for anyone who isnt interested in paying for women. April , traveled with friends. Reviewed December 30, hookers hookers hookers and more hookers.